I’ve decided to go All Alex Rose, All The Time. That means that I’m pausing The History Man blog and switching over to . . .


Remember, you heard it here first.

A nice surprise on Sunday morning: The Arkansas Democrat Gazette gave a lengthy (and perceptive) review of American Rifle: A Biography. I’ve pasted in the text below. 


Book details relationship of rifles to U.S. military

Review by Bryan Hendricks, Arkansas Democrat Gazette, June 7, 2009

For a definitive history of the American military rifle, American Rifle, A Biography, is the best I’ve ever read. 

Written by Alexander Rose, author of Washington’s Spies, American Rifle chronicles the parallel development of the rifle with that of the United States military. They are so closely entwined that they are inseparable, such that the rifle was and is the primary influence on U.S. military doctrine. If that claim sounds grandiose and preposterous, Rose makes his case in a way that quashes all doubt. 

The book begins with a prologue about George Washington’s prized, custom-made Jost rifle, for which he paid 6 pounds and 10 shillings. That price today, Rose speculated, would equal something close to $1,400. Washington insisted that the rifle appear in a famous portrait by Charles Willson Peale. Including the rifle had both sentimental appeal and political calculation. 

“By identifying himself simultaneously with the American frontiersman and with the professional soldier,” Rose wrote, “Washington succeeded in squaring an obstinately round circle. One day … this feat would lead to his unanimously approved elevation to commander in chief of the American forces for a war of independence.” 

Beginning with the French and Indian Wars, the rifle was an extremely controversial weapon. It was designed for long-range sharpshooting, allowing its shooter to engage and kill an individual target. That sharply violated European military doctrine, which placed a premium on massed troops using muskets to rain massed fire on a massed foe. European troops did not aim at a specific target. They fired their guns with the expectation that massed firepower would overwhelm and rout an enemy. To actually pick out a target and kill that one person specifically was seen as murder, especially since American riflemen had a tendency to shoot British officers. 

According to European military theorists, this subverted all social order on the battlefield and gave too much power to individual soldiers. The British considered fighting with rifles a war crime, and riflemen captured in battle were summarily executed. Hence, there was vigorous debate within the Continental Army as to whether the use of rifles was legal, and whether American soldiers should fight according to European customs. 

Of all this book’s tangents and subplots, the most compelling revolves around the relentless struggle for dominance between massed fire advocates and those who emphasize single-shot accuracy. It is a debate that endures to this day, in both military and sporting circles. 

Rose explains how, early on, the Department of the Army’s Ordnance Department embraced single-shot rifles, muzzleloading rifles. The Ordnance Department maintained this bias into the Civil War, even when it was apparent that breechloading rifles and even repeating rifles provided a distinct advantage over the comparatively primitive arms that Confederate troops used. To the dismay of U.S. Army hierarchy, some Union generals gave their troops a boost by purchasing repeating rifles and ammunition with their personal funds. 

The objection to repeaters and breechloaders was that they promoted undisciplined fire and profligated waste of ammunition. 

Through generations, Rose noted, the army was dominated by a “cult of accuracy” that practically deified the notion of long-range marksmanship. However, that grand ideal constantly clashed with the realities of the actual battlefield, where combat usually occurred furiously at fairly close ranges. 

One of the transcendent moments of that debate, Rose added with great detail, was at the Battle of the Little Bighorn, where a combined American Indian army slaughtered George Custer’s cavalry. Custer and his men were armed with single-shot Springfield rifles. They simply could not load and fire fast enough to outshoot the American Indians, many of whom used repeaters to augment their swarming tactics. 

It came to a head again in World War I, when the U.S. Army went to Europe with its famed 1903 Springfield repeating rifle. U.S. General John Pershing emphasized individual marksmanship, but found sniping to be of limited use in trench warfare. 

Finally, massed fire advocates seemed to gain the upper hand in World War II with the M-1 Garand, a semiautomatic rifle chambered in .30-06. It was also no secret that U.S. Marines in the Pacific Theater preferred the .45-cal. Thompson submachine gun over standard issue weapons. 

The emergence of the Kalashnikov AK-47 permanently altered the perception of the combat rifle. Though cheaply made, its main attributes were high-capacity, rapid-fire capability and near indestructibility. A few years later, the U.S. military adopted the M16, which featured the same attributes, except with cartridges featuring tiny .22-caliber bullets. 

A thorough review of this book could go twice as long. The bottom line is it’s a wellwritten, comprehensive history of a tough subject.”


Posted by Alexander Rose,

Kentucky Rifle


A couple of things.

First, Invention & Technology magazine has kindly posted my “Kentucky Rifle” piece online. Unfortunately, it lacks the stunning photos of the paper version, but I expect that’s owing to copyright issues. You can download a PDF of the original article — with photos — from my website. (Scroll about halfway down the page.) 

Second, I attended the American Revolution Round Table’s dinner a few nights ago, where Gordon Wood was speaking (about the clash between Hamiltonian “monarchism” and Jeffersonian republicanism in 1780s/1790s America — I think he has a book coming out). At the dinner, Thomas Fleming, the historian, verbally reviewed John Ross’s new War on the Run, a biography of Robert Rogers and his times. It was, as they say, a double-thumbs-up rave. I happened to review the book on Amazon (my first-ever review), a copy of which I’ve posted below. The book’s well worth a look. 

My Amazon review:

“In my own book — and I apologize for the self-serving plug, but it’s pertinent — Washington’s Spies: The Story of America’s First Spy Ring, I devoted part of a chapter to Robert Rogers, one of the most remarkable killing gentlemen of Colonial (and Revolutionary) America. I always, however, wanted to know more about this bewitching, wild creature, and so I’m glad that John Ross has undertaken the burden of excavating his life and times from the murk of the past. 

Good, narrative-driven history-writing is tricky to pull off, but, having blazed through the book, I think Ross has done a sterling job introducing Rogers to a modern audience. Ross is particularly skilled at evoking the frightening nature of the wilderness and the unique exigencies of frontier fighting. The vast, unexplored backcountry was densely thicketed by forests, rumpled by towering mountain ranges, and watered by unbridgeable rivers — and Rogers was master of it all. Small wonder his enemies (and friends) were terrified of him; small wonder that they (in Ross’s words) “could not get their imagination around the man, this master of nature and humans who could lead unimpressionable New Englanders to the edge of death over and over.” 

Now, while I had once foolishly assumed that Rogers was merely a rough-hewn, if cunning, ranger with an eye for the main chance, I’m happy to admit that War on the Run set me straight. Rogers, in truth, was an immensely complex individual, being both the most famed (or notorious) frontiersman in the world — a kind of Davy Crockett/Daniel Boone twofer — as well as a literate and entertaining American who, through his books and a play, illuminated to his fellow colonists the amazing potential of what would become their own country come 1783. 

Production-wise, the photos have been chosen with great care, and his footnotes (or rather, endnotes) are rock solid. A useful list of “Dramatis Personae” — to help us keep track of the dozens of colorful characters stalking the early frontier — and no fewer than 14 maps make War on the Run a worthwhile purchase. This is a very fine biography of one of America’s early Greats, and it’s certainly one of the most interesting books I’ve read all year. 

Recommended for anyone interested in early America and military history (especially insurgency, Special Forces, and the evolution of tactics).”

Alexander Rose,

I was just sent this — it’s from the forthcoming April issue of Shooting Illustrated. Apparently, there will be a longer online version coming out.Shooting Illustrated Review

The editors at National Review were kind enough to allow me to take up most of a page with a letter clarifying a few misconceptions about what I say about the place of riflemen during the War of Independence in American Rifle: A Biography. Thanks, gents, much appreciated. 

Here’s the PDF: Letter to National Review

Posted by Alexander Rose,

Hey, cool, the book just got pinged by Instapundit. It’s quite an honor. 

Posted by Alexander Rose (

A busy day for posting here at the History Man. Here’s a PDF of an article I wrote about a year ago for the military magazine, Armchair General, but which has only appeared now (in the March 2009) issue. It has nothing to do with rifles, but concerns instead the subject of my last book, Washington’s Spies: The Story of America’s First Spy Ring (Bantam Dell, 2006).

Click here to download: The Culper Ring – Alexander Rose – Armchair General (March 2009)

Posted by Alexander Rose (


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